The body length of Euceraphis betulae alates is 3.0-4.2 mm. Sexual forms occur from September to November. By late April/early May they have developed into adult fundatrices (see first picture below) and start to produce offspring (see second picture below). In many plants, however, vigorously growing foliage co-exists with stressed or damaged foliage. Holopainen et al. The body length of Callipterinella calliptera apterae is 1.5-2.5 mm. Two winged aphids with long antennae and a third smaller insect on a silver birch leaf, Surrey, SE England. Hajek & Dahlsten (1986) studied resource partitioning by the three introduced species. Aprender más. Find the perfect homoptera aphididae pest insect stock photo. Overall niche overlap between species reached a maximum of 50% between Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella calliptera. Hopkins & Dixon (2000) looked at the cues used by birch-feeding aphids to select a resting site. Several natural enemies like ladybugs and parasitic wasps prey on these pests. Euceraphis punctipennis is primarily associated with downy birch (Betula pubescens) and Euceraphis betulae with silver birch (Betula pendula). This was not the case for Callipterinella calliptera because Danish (? Particular stages in the life cycle can be more readily distinguished. Biology & Ecology: Taxonomy They're having a field day as the very wet weather has laid low all their predators. While many insect herbivores affect one another through changes to host plant chemical composition, Eriocrania also has the potential to affect Euceraphis betulae through structural modification of a shared leaf. Shading of the tree canopy was the single most important variable discriminating between tree groups. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. The "plant stress" and "plant vigour" hypotheses have been suggested as opposing ways in which foliage quality influences herbivore abundance. Euceraphis betulae escaped from coccinellid larvae more frequently when approached from the front, apparently using vision for pre-contact detection of Adalia bipunctata. This paper. Predators and parasitoids have been found to be the major controllers of arboreal aphids. Eriocrania larvae mining leaves with manually damaged midribs weighed more than those in which the midrib was intact. And it only takes a few predators per plant to significantly cut down on the number of bugs. They measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. This hypothesis suggests that green foliage can continue to produce herbivore-inducible plant volatiles and maintain volatile-based indirect plant defences against aphids until leaf abscission. We have found nymphs of Euceraphis betulae on many different hosts including sycamore, sweet chestnut (see first picture below), and even bamboo (see second picture below - note the nymphs are bamboo-feeding Takecallis). Two species of aphids make birch trees their active feeding and breeding territory: the European birch aphid and the common birch aphid. Description. In assessments for associational resistance, they found that the polyphagous green leaf weevils (Polydrusus flavipes) and autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae both preferred Betula pendula to Rhododendron tomentosum. The silver birch aphid lives on the undersides of leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula). Black Ant - Lasius niger - milking aphids. ), and possibly by dispersal of immature apterae, seems remarkably haphazard as regards host. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). Johnson SN(1), Douglas AE, Woodward S, Hartley SE. The aphids were damaging the birch tree leaves and staining her concrete from the honeydew. There could therefore be a selective advantage to leaf-miners that damage the midrib if severance improves leaf nutritional quality, in addition to rendering the leaves unsuitable to potential competitors. Time we have found Callipterinella calliptera ( see first picture below shows an alate in late July subsequent generations! Vigour '' hypotheses have been unable to Find any black-banded birch aphids are found in Britain than its,! 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