The catchment here is steep and narrow. The mountainous landscape means that only 16% of the country is farmed under lowland terrace or upland shifting cultivation. The impact of road embankments and similar infrastructure developments on the movement of this flood water is an increasingly important consequence of development.[12]. [12] Here, the river landscape is flat. Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon, Nomascus gabriellae. We identified 877 fish species in the MRB (not including estuary marine species). Several giant freshwater species are listed in the Red Book of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), including giant Australian fish - the largest freshwater fish of the same family with the barbeled houndshark. Current speed and channel morphology change as the Mekong River flows downstream affect the species that favor specific parts of the river… Der Mekong-Riesenwels (Pangasianodon gigas) ist die größte Art der Familie der Haiwelse (Pangasiidae) und einer der größten Süßwasserfische der Welt. The population is ranked as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List, the highest international threat ranking for endangered species, and is restricted to a 180km stretch of the mainstream Mekong River in Cambodia between Kratie and Khone Falls on the border with Laos. Within the Mekong River system there are flourishing fisheries that exploit a large number of species. The low tide level of the river in Cambodia is lower than the high tide level out at sea, and the flow of the Mekong inverts with the tides throughout its stretch in Vietnam and up to Phnom Penh. Once more, it defines the Laos-Thailand border for some 850 kilometres (530 mi) as it flows first east, passing the capital of Laos, Vientiane, then turns south. Sun bear Traditional forms of trade in small boats linking communities continue today, however the river is also becoming an important link in international trade routes, connecting the six Mekong countries to each other, and also to the rest of the world. An MRC report claims that dam projects on the Mekong River will reduce aquatic life by 40% by 2020, and predicted that 80% of fish will be depleted by 2040. Approximately 4350 km in length and originating high in the Tibetan plateau, it passes through six countries: China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Locals are blaming low water on the newly constructed Xayaburi Dam, as it enters its test phase prior to the start of commercial operation in October 2019. [23] Sediments deposited in the Tonle Sap Great Lake about this time (7.9–7.3 ka) also show indications of marine influence, suggesting a connection to the South China Sea. The species is considered virtually extinct in the wild with numbers estimated between 50 and 4,000 in Thailand due to habitat destruction and hunting for skins. The Greater Mekong has no fewer than 20,000 species of plants, 1,200 bird species, 800 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 430 mammal species. Interdisciplinary Analyses of a River Delta. [34] The Mekong Region contains 16 WWF Global 200 ecoregions, the greatest concentration of ecoregions in mainland Asia. This number is constantly increasing as many previously unknown species are found. [12] Although this part of northeast Thailand has an annual rainfall of more than 1,000 mm, a high evaporation rate means it is classified as a semi-arid region. [12] Sandy and saline soils are the most common soil types, which makes much of the land unsuitable for wet rice cultivation. Tourism on the Mekong. ): The Mekong Delta System. This makes the Mekong second to only the Amazon for the variety of fish species present. The Mekong Conservation Heroes program is part of the Wonders of the Mekong project funded by USAID. [3] The volume of this trade is expected to increase by 8–11% per year. Species under threat in the region include the Irra… There are approximately 20,000 plant species, 850 fish species, 430 mammals, 800 reptiles and 1,200 species of bird. This Irrawaddy dolphin was photographed swimming in the Mekong ... Wild Asian elephants in Kuiburi National Park, Thailand. In: Remote Sensing 5, pp. More giants inhabit this mighty river than any other on Earth. Unlike the Friendship Bridges, it is not a border crossing. Understanding the nature and timing of the elevation of Tibet (and the Central Highlands of Vietnam) therefore helps explain the provenance of sediment reaching the delta and the Tonle Sap Great Lake today. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. In: International Journal of Remote Sensing 35 (8), pp. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. [3], Waterborne trade in the lower Mekong countries of Vietnam and Cambodia has grown significantly, with trends in container traffic at Phnom Penh port and general cargo through Can Tho port both showing steady increases until 2009 when a decrease in cargo volumes can be attributed to the global financial crisis and a subsequent decline in demand for the export of garments to the US. 7–48. The goal of the Mekong Conservation Heroes program is to shine a spotlight on inspiring individuals in the Lower Mekong Basin working to study, protect, or raise awareness about the Mekong River’s unique ecosystem, biodiversity, habitats, and cultural heritage. The extreme seasonal variations in flow and the presence of rapids and waterfalls in the Mekong make navigation difficult. The Fourth Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge opened to traffic on 11 December 2013. Both drought and flood are common hazards in the Delta, which many people believe is the most sensitive to upstream hydrological change. The Mekong River is the world’s second-most biodiverse river, after the Amazon River, with the largest freshwater fishery [3]. Although the Mun–Chi basin drains 20% of the lower system, average annual runoff is only 250 mm. The dhole is a competitor to the leopard. Excluding China ) lost about a third of its forest cover called Mae Nam Khong from a contracted of. 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