Oil can also be distilled from white pepper but high price of white pepper and low oil yield do not favour its commercial production. The fungus infects both leaves and stems. he berries are separated from the spike usually by trampling with human legs. The fertilizers are applied at a distance of about 30 cm all around the vine and covered with a thick layer of soil. The yield of the affected vines decreases gradually. As a mixed crop it can also be intercropped with green manure/ legumes crops enabling effective nutrient built up. Recyclable/ reusable packaging materials shall be used wherever possible. For this, make three equidistant holes of 2 - 3 cm depth in the bag around the cuttings and place phorate* 10 G @1 g/bag or Carbofuran* 3 G @3 g/bag in these holes and cover with soil. The buds start developing in about three weeks and then the poly bags can then be removed and kept in shade till main field planting. Hence regular monitoring of the nursery for insects and spraying with insecticide like dimethoate (0.05%) should be resorted to whenever insect attack is noticed. It can also be propagated through seeds but it takes longer duration for yield, hence only stem cutting method is followed to get quick yields at a higher rate.Due to the climbing nature, black pepper needs support to climb as it grows up to 10m height. vigorous growth as a result of better root system. At the onset of monsoon (May - June), apply Trichoderma harzianum around the base of the vine @50 g/vine (this quantity is recommended for a substr ate containing Trichoderma harzianum @ 10 10 cfu/g). The diseased vines exhibit foliar yellowing from October onwards coinciding with depletion of soil moisture. The berries are then dried in the sun for 16 to 20 hours. For backyard planting select well-drained area and divide into equal areas of 2x2 square meter lots. Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum Family â Piperaceae PPT. Vines are irrigated at the basin through hose and fifty litres per vine is recommended for vines that have crossed 15 years of age. Besides, inspection and removal of inf ected plants should also be done at regular intervals. 384 0 obj
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By this method 80 - 85% success rate can be obtained. Eco friendly packaging materials such as clean gunny bags or paper bags may be adopted and the use of polythene bags may be minimized. Polythene bags used are filled with solarized potting mixture fortified with bio - control agent. Pepper is now grown in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and Kampuchea as well as the West coast of India, known as Malabar, where it originated. Also, carbosulfan 0.1% @ 50 ml/bag can be applied to control nematodes. Pepper oleoresin Extraction of black pepper with organic solvents like acetone, ethanol or dichloro-ethane provides 10-13% oleoresin possessing the odour, flavour and pungent principles of the spice. Such units consist of a fan/ blower and a feeding assembly. Spike length will be comparatively more in irrigated crop. The pest infestation is more serious in shaded areas in the plantation. After the receipt of a few monsoon showers, all the vines are to be drenched with potassium phosphonate (0.3%) @ 5 - 10 litres/vine. Trichoderma @ 1g and VAM @ 100 cc/kg of soil can be added to the potting mixture. Adequate drainage should be provided to reduce water stagnation. Over 75 cultivars of black pepper are being cultivated in India. If the berries are allowed to over ripe, there is heavy loss due to berry drop and damage by birds. The disease is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is often serious in nurseries during April - May when warm humid conditions prevail. A well distributed annual rainfall of 125-200 cm is considered ideal for black pepper. The infection on the stem is seen as black lesions which result in blight. Each single nodded cutting with the bunch of roots intact is cut and planted in polythene bags filled with fumigated potting mixture. Indonesia is the largest Harvested spikes are generally collected in clean gunny bags. The infected vines are to be destroyed to prevent the further spread of the disease. It is desirable that organic method of production is followed in the entire farm; but in the case of large extent of area, the transition can be done in a phased manner for which a conversion plan has to be prepared. Sun drying is the conventional method followed for drying of black pepper. The cuttings can be taken out of the pit after two months of planting and kept in a shaded place and watered twice a day. A prophylactic spray with Bordeaux prevents both the diseases. by allowing runners to strike roots in the partially decomposed coir pith and vermicompost (75:25) bed of convenient dimension (1.5 m width, 10 cm height and convenient length). Value Chain Development and Technology Practices of Spice Crop 116 (Cardamom (small and large) Ginger, Turmeric, Black pepper, and Cinnamon) in Nepal Anisur Rahman Ansari Value Cain Development and Technology Practices of Spice Crops 136 (Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Cardamom, Ginger and Turmeric) in Sri Lanka A.P. Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) (Family : Piperaceae) is a perennial vine grown for its berries extensively used as spice and in medicine. The root system of diseased vines show varying degrees of necrosis and presence of root galls due t o infestation by plant parasitic nematodes such as Radopholus similis and Meloidogyne incognita leading to rotting of feeder roots. If Bordeaux mixture is used care must be taken to prevent dripping of fungicide to the soil. Hunter. The larvae and pupae are creamy white. After the receipt of a few monsoon showers, all the vines are to be drenched with meta laxyl mancozeb (0.125%) @5 - 10 litres/vine. Care should be taken to avoid direct contact of fertilizer s with roots of black pepper. Slow decline is a debilitating disease of black pepper. Irrigating black pepper vines during summer (March II fortnight to May II fortnight) at fortnightly interval enhances productivity by 90 to 100 per cent compared to unirrigated crop. The damage caused to roots by nematode infestations result in poor growth, foliar yellowing and sometimes interveinal chlorosis of leaves. Pepper has moisture content of 65% to 70% at harvest, which should be brought to safer levels of 10% by adequate drying. Grey sunken spots and mycelia threads appear on the leaves and the infected leaves are attached to one another with the mycelia threads. The tender leaves and succulent shoot tips of freshly emerging runner shoots trailing on the soil turn black when infected. R to Xcv 1â5, Panniyur-1, Panniyur-3 and Panniyur-8 are hybrids evolved at the Pepper Research Station, Panniyur (Kerala Agricultural University). hÞb```f``òbàd`ÝÍ Â "@V¶É@ýL¥?¶v×~T`^aZ~Úb2H±6×±5z O[#60wtp0ytp4p444H`ÓÆÀÀÂ ¬üÈ bA°@v.«ÌÌ%ÌL+ga`àóáÒåRcd«deV1¸HE0²BøV ®(. Serpentine layering technique can be used for product ion of rooted cuttings of black pepper in a cheap and effective manner. Mechanical driers developed by various agencies are also used to dry black pepper. The lighter fractions (dust, immature berries, pin heads and spent spikes) are blown away. Kerala and Karnataka account for a major portion of production of black pepper in the country. Yield Pepper vines attain full bearing stage in the 7th or 8th year after planting and it starts declining after 20 to 25 years and replanting has to be done thereafter. Early maturity. Vertical column method is a novel technique for large scale production of quality planting materials in black pepper. When the deficient conditions of trace elements become yield limiting, restricted use of mineral/chemical sources of micronutrients and magnesium sulphate are allowed as per the limits of standard setting or certifying organizations. Optimum soil temperature for root growth is 26-28°C. Heenkende Fully - grown larvae are greyish green and measure 12 - 15 mm in length. Healthy black pepper rooted cuttings are ready for field planting after 120 - 150 days. Select planting materials from high yielding hermaphrodite mother plant. Govt. However, lopping of standards should be done carefully from the fourth year onwards, not only to regulate height of the standards, but also to shade the black pepper vines optimally. The grower has to document all the details with respect to field map, field history sheet, activity register, input record, output record, harvest record, st orage record, pest control records, movement record, equipments cleaning record and labelling records etc. Biocontrol agents like Pochonia chlamydosporia or Trichoderma harzianum can be applied @ 50 g/vine twice a year (during April - May and September - October). The recovery of white pepper is about 25 % of ripe berries while that of black pepper is about 33 %. Application of lime or dolomite @ 500 g/vine in April - May during alternate years is recommended under highly acid soil conditions. Removes the extraneous impurities like dust from the berries. BREEDING PROGRAM IN OTHER COUNTRIES â¢ Malaysia and Indonesia have research programmes on black pepper. Spikes which are fallen on to the ground may be collected separately, cleaned and then pooled to the general lot. The process of keeping potting mixture filled polythene bags at every node junction to induce rooting at each node is repeated. Certification and labelling is usually done by an independent body to provide a guarantee that the production standards are met. On the leaves white mycelium are seen at the advancing edges of the lesions. The grubs bore into and feed on the internal tissues and the infested spikes turn black and decay. It requires a similar climate like that of chilli and is also susceptible to frost. Models of varying capacities operated either electrically or by burning agricultural wastes are available for drying of black pepper by maintaining temperature below 55 ° C. The threshed and dried black pepper has extraneous matter like spent spikes, pinheads, stones, soil particles etc. NPK 50: 50: 150 g/vine/year (General recommendation), NPK 50: 50: 200 g/vine/year (for Panniyur and Kannur district in Kerala), NPK 140: 55: 270 g/vine/year (for Kozhikode district in Kerala), Soil test based fertilizer recommendations for dry yield target levels of 3 and 6 tons/ha, 50 100 25 80 10 55 - 20, 40 80 30 70 10 55 - 30, 150 310 125 275 80 250 35 110. This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. A foliar spray with metalaxyl mancozeb (0.125%) may also be given. They must either be tied back to the standard or pruned off. With the onset of monsoon, 2 - 3 rooted cuttings of black pepper are planted individually in the pits on the northern side of each standard. A second application of Trichoderma harzianum and foliar spray of bordeaux mixture (1%) or potassium phosphon ate (0.3%) are to be given during August - September. It grows successfully between 20° North and South latitude, and from sea level up to 1500 m above sea level. It is seen in serious condition when the pre - monsoon showers are delay ed and flowering and spiking occur during June - July. The fertilizers are to be applied in two split doses, one in May - June and the other in August - September and sufficient soil moisture must be ensured. Black pepper is commonly propagated through vegetative propagation i.e., stem cuttings. The entire pepper holding can be converted to organic production when pepper is grown as sole crop. This operation is crude, tedious and unhygienic. After the receipt of a few monsoon showers (May - June), all the vines are to be drenched at a radius of 45 - 50 cm with copper oxychloride (0.2%) @ 5 - 10 litres/vine. Cleaning is achieved by feeding the material through the hopper into a stream of air blowing in perpendicular direction. A third round of drenching may be given during October if the monsoon is prolonged. Before storage it is to be dried to less than 10 per cent moisture. These cuttings will be ready for field planting after about 2 ½ months. The fungus load in the substrate should be 10 8 cfu/g. Black pepper is a plant of humid tropics requiring high rainfall and humidity. Drenching and spraying are to be repeated once again during August - September. Since the biocontrol agents mainly protect the root system, the aerial portion may be protected with chemicals. All parts of the vine are vulnerable to the disease and the expression of symptoms depend upon the site or plant part infected and the extent of damage. Growing cover crops like Calapogonium mucunoides and Mimosa invisa are also recommended under West Coast conditions as an effective soil cover to prevent soil erosion during rainy season. During drying, enzymatic browning sets in and the phenolic compounds are oxidized by atmospheric oxygen under the catalytic influence of the enzyme phenolase and eventually turn black. The recommended dose of nutrients for varying soil test values of N, P and K is given in Table 3. The cuttings should be irrigated at least five times a day with a rose can. Pre - planting treatment of two/three node cuttings by immersing in a solution of carbendazim + mancozeb (0.1%) for 30 minutes and spraying Bordeaux mixture (1%) alternating with carbendazim (0.1%) is effective against the disease. Organically grown black pepper should be packaged separately and labelled . The planting is done at a spacing of 3 m × 3 m which would accommodate about 1110 standards per hectare. Cuttings from lateral branches develop a bushy habit. In nurseries spraying neem oil 0.3% or Neemgold 0.3% or fish oil rosin 3% is also effective in controlling the pest infestation. In later stages, the discolouration gradually increases and the berries show the characteristic cross splitting. hÞbbd``b`z$CAÄQ ÁZ$X~Ý@y'H&µ$¶ DqWF 1KH0D þ%@«H¨=a`bdü``¤:ñ¡å=@ Í3D
The disease can be controlled by adopting integrated disease management strategies. For 2013, it exported between 130,000 and 135,000 tons of pepper at a value of around $900,000,000. The pollu beetle ( Lanka ramakrishnai ) is the most destructive pest of black pepper and is more serious in plains and at altitudes below 300 m. The adult is a small black beetle measuring about 2.5 mm × 1.5 mm, the head and thorax being yellowish brown and the fore wings (elytra) black. To convert an existing plantation to organic, a conversion period of 36 months is set for the perennial crops. Soil solarization or Steam sterilization can be done for sterilizing the nursery mixture. Planting material must be collected from disease free gardens and the nursery preferably rais ed in fumigated or solarized soil. Harvesting Black pepper takes about 7 - 8 months after flowering t o reach full maturity. Adequate shade has to be provided and the polythene bags are to be irrigated frequently. The affected vines exhibit varying degrees of root degeneration due to infestation by plant parasitic nematodes. Harvest 75 days after transplanting. For organic production, traditional varieties adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions that are resistant or tolerant to diseases, pests and nematode infection should be used. The word pepper originated from the Sanskrit word pippali, meaning berry. While applying nematicides, the soil should be raked in the basin of the vine lightly without causing damage to the root system and the nematicide should be spread uniformly in the basin and covered with soil immediately. To the sterilized mixture, bio agents such as VAM @ 100 cc/kg of mixture and Trichoderma harzianum @ 1 g/kg of soil ( Trichoderma population @ 10 10 cfu/g) may be added at the time of filling of nursery mixture in polythene bags. Heavy spike shedding may occur due to lack of pollination and anthracnose infection. Cleaning and grading are basic operations that enhance the value of the produce and help to get higher returns. Manuring and fertilizer application for pepper vines is to be done for proper establishment and growth of plants. Use of biopesticides, biocontrol agents, cultural and phytosanitary measures for the management of insect pests and diseases forms the main strategy under organic system. Spray dimethoate (0.05%) du ring emergence of new flushes in young vines in the field and cuttings in the nursery. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws. The inspectors appointed by the certification agencies will carry out inspection of the farm operations through records maintained and by periodic site inspections. Harvest starts when one or two berries turn yellow. The larvae bore into tender terminal shoots and feed on internal tissues resulting in blackening and decay ing of affected shoots. The control measures should be taken up during early stages of the disease. The runner shoots are separated from the vine during February - March, and after trimming the leaves, cuttings of 2 - 3 nodes are planted either in nursery beds or in polythene bags filled with potting mixture (soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:1 ratio). The disease can be controlled from the beginning stages, by adopting phytosanitary measures. Propagation and planting methods of Black pepper. Vein clearing, mosaic, yellow specks, mottling and small sized leaves are the most apparent symptoms for identifying viral infections in the nursery. Considering the shortage of human labour mechanical threshing can be popularized at cluster level. BLACK PEPPER 1.- Black Pepper General Information . As the plants grow, shoots are tied to the standard as often as required. By this method, on an average, 60 cuttings can be harvested per mother plant in a year. 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